As everyone knows perfectly, Russia is the largest country in the world. Just imagine, that it has from the West to the East for almost 10,000 km, and from North to South to 4000 km. Feel the size? Our country boards with 19 countries (this is, by the way, the largest indicator in the world). In particular: on land we border with Scandinavian beauties Norway and Finland, Baltic countries — Latvia, Litva and Estonia, Poland (only Kaliningrad region), the nearest neighbors, including the mentality, is Belarus, Ukraine. In addition, Russia's border passes with Abkhazia, Georgia, South Ossetia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, DPRK, Mongolia. We are adjacent to Turkey, Japan and even with the USA, which is considered a country "behind the ocean".
Imagine the largest country in the world, inhabited by a furious number of nationalities, nationalities and language groups. Think about the centuries-old history, which began with pagan tribes, grew into the great Kiev Principality, adopted Christianity and through all the complexity of the Board of Ivan Grozny, through the storms and incredible power of Peter I, through the enlightenment of Catherine II and through a lot of tragic wars, including the greatest in the world history World War II ,we reached present time, keeping memory of our great ancestors — Saint Alexander Nevsky, Dmitry Donskoy, Sergei Radonezhsky,…
Look all these lands covered with snow, seared with the hot sun, stretched for many thousand kilometers of desert, Taiga or leaning in the sky with the highest points of Urals, Caucasian mountains, Altai.
And finally, only think about what wealth lies in front of us. It is Russia.
As the largest country in the world, Russia just can't impress the imagination of scientists with it's climatic wealth. The Arctic, subarctic, temperate and even subtropical climatic zones were settled in our country. And almost everywhere there is a clear separation of the year to cold and warm seasons. Most of Russia lies, of course, in a temperate belt, which, in turn, is divided into four subtypes: temperately continental (European territory), continental (Western Siberia), sharply-continental (Eastern Siberia and the far East) and monsoon (South-East of the Far East).
The coldest place of Russia is the North of the Far East, where the Oymyakon is the "pole of the Northern hemisphere". Only think about, the average temperature in January here falls below -46 degrees. But not everywhere there is so cool, remember about Krasnodarskiy Krai or Crimea. If there are snowing in winter, it is then quickly melts and the only remain about it is a beautiful snow caps on the tops of mountains. Usually, the temperature is about +10 degrees in winter.
Summer in the country is also different: while in the South is set heat, in the North snow just is going to melt, and become a little warmer.
As it has been said above, Russia is the largest state around the world. Its territory covers land Eastern Europe and North Asia and holds many regions and nationalities. Each region of Russia differs from each other by its history, natural resources, traditions. Everyone has its unique color. Multi-faceted Russia can offer a traveler and exciting vacation in nature, and cognitive excursions on historical places, and relaxed pastime on the sea coast and much more. It depends on what region you choose.
Of course, the starting points for acquaintance with Russia are Moscow and St. Petersburg, rich in monuments of architecture, museums and many other historical sights. Also for exploring the history of the country and its architecture it is worth visiting the region of Central Russia and to see such ancient cities as Suzdal, Vladimir, Yaroslavl and other cities of the Golden Ring.
In Russia there are many reserve regions, Karelia with its green forests and reservoirs, Hakassia with its amazing lakes. The Republic of Tatarstan is rich in the mighty rivers (Volga, Vyatka, White, cama) and picturesque lakes. And the historical capital (Kazan khanate, Republic of Tatarstan) Kazan, which is the largest cultural center of Russia, rich in museums, private galleries and theatres. Kazan Kremlin is among UNESCO world heritage sites.
One of the popular tourist places is the Republic of Altai, where you can make ecological and cognitive tours, Hiking, horse, fishing trips. There are a huge number of natural objects in the Altai territory, the most famous of which Teletskoe lake, on the banks of which there are many boarding houses and camping.
Something like this can offer less popular tourists, but also very interesting Urals, another chip which, except nature, is the mining and history, cast in iron.
Krasnodar gift will please lovers of sea rest. The cleanest sea, Sunny weather and fresh air have a Wellness stay, so there is a large number of sanatoriums and boarding houses on the territory of Krasnodar.
Another health center is the Caucasus with its mineral waters and healing mud. In addition, the Caucasus is popular among extreme types of recreation, such as mountain skis and snowboarding.
For fans of ethnic ecotourism it will be interesting to visit Kalmykia, Dagestan or Khanty-Mansiysky Autonomous district, where you can see settlements where residents live according to ancient customs. In any case, what kind of rest you would not decide to do, Russia can offer the region with every chosen conditions!
Any person can find a vacation in our country for any taste. For someone it can be familiar with the sights and familiarization with the history of Russia. Of course, in this case, Moscow and St. Petersburg are the most popular among tourists, the cities with rich historical heritage, a lot of monuments and fascinating museums. In the route of cognitive travel it is worth to include cities Golden Ring and Kazan, Novgorod Great, Pskov and many others.
For some tourists it will be interesting to see unique natural objects of the country, to hunt, fishing or go Hiking with tents. There are many amazing nature objects in our country, some of which are included in the UNESCO list. You can choose a trip to lake Baikal, where tourist infrastructure is well developed. You can go to the mountains of the Caucasus and enjoy the views of beautiful canyons, large waterfalls, see unique animals. Fishing lovers can spend great time on the cleanest rivers of one of the most colorful places of Russia — Kamchatka, or rivers of the Kolsky Peninsula.
In Russia, it is well developed beach and Wellness recreation. Many will be pleasant to run in the sun rays on the coast and breathe healthy air of coniferous forests in the Krasnodar region or on the Baltic sea coast. Throughout the country you can find boarding houses and sanatorium that offer guests and just rest, and stay in combination with therapeutic procedures.
In addition, in Russia it is well developed extreme tourism: Hiking and Cycling on technically complex, but incredibly beautiful natural places; ski — in high mountains on prepared snow tracks; and water in the form of kayaking, for example.
In Russia, there are several dozen airlines that make domestic flights throughout the country. Most of the flights are made either from or to Moscow, so you will often have to make a transit transfer. The country's key airports are located in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, some cities in the Far East, and resorts in the Krasnodar region. There is no air service between many regions.
The most convenient and popular way to get from one city to another is by rail. Only in Russia can you take a long-distance train, which can be on the road for up to eight days. In addition to such "long" trains, there are Express trains and electric trains that run from regional centers to nearby cities. The cost of tickets depends on the route, and you can buy them at the station's ticket offices, in special agencies, as well as on the Russian Railways website.
Intercity and suburban bus services are available in all regions of Russia. There is no single database of schedules or booking system, so the most relevant way to find out the schedule and ticket prices is to visit the bus station or call there by phone. Bus service is provided by a wide variety of modes of transport: it can be a Soviet bus with a minimum of amenities, or a modern air-conditioned car-liner.
In large cities, urban transport is well developed, which is represented by metro, buses, trolleybuses, trams and minibuses. In small cities, urban transport can only be represented by buses.
In every major city there are companies that offer cars for rent. This can be both global rental companies and local ones. You should study the rates, rental conditions and choose a car in advance. If you decide to rent a car, you should, of course, know the rules of the road in Russia, as well as the features of local roads.
Russian cuisine is incredibly diverse, its features and tastes vary depending on the geographical location of the area. It is considered that Russian cuisine is one of the most colorful in the world, it has absorbed the ancient Slavic cuisine and the cuisine of various peoples living in Russia. Since we have more than 100 nationalities, and each of them has its own traditions and customs, it is quite difficult to briefly describe Russian cuisine. However, there are many dishes that can be called native Russian and that are definitely worth trying.
In Russian cuisine, most products are not used raw. The most popular methods of cooking are stewing, baking, languishing and marinating (since in Russia it is customary to prepare products for the future). As a rule, lunch in Russia consists of three dishes: soup (good old borsch, rich soup or any other), the second (meat or fish with a side dish) and the third in the form of a drink (berry juice, thick jelly or compote) and dessert. In addition, the Russian table is always rich in snacks.
The abundance of cereals in Russia, such as rye, oats, and wheat, made it possible to prepare many varieties of bread, cereals, pancakes, beer, and other cereal products. One of the most popular Russian dishes is pancakes, which are served with sour cream, caviar, jam, honey, fish and other fillings. In addition, Moscow rolls and bagels, Tula cakes, pies and pies with fillings (apples, plums, cabbage, fish, meat, cottage cheese, and many others) are popular among flour products. No Russian meal can be imagined without bread. They always ate a lot of it in Russia. No wonder the proverb "Bread is the head of everything"was born here.
Another popular dish in Russia is porridge, which used to be always cooked in the oven. Russian people love oatmeal, pearl barley, millet, buckwheat and semolina porridges so much that you can't imagine a Russian family's diet without them. Most often, porridge is eaten for Breakfast and served with butter and jam.
The peculiarities of the climate in Russia contributed to the appearance of hot and hearty food, such as soups. The most popular soups are okroshka (mostly in summer), fresh cabbage soup, pickle soup and, of course, borsch.
Traditional drinks in Russia are kvass, mors, teas and sbiten, and from alcoholic beverages-vodka, honey and various tinctures
Russian cuisine is unique and not as widespread in the world as, for example, Italian or Japanese. But if you will taste it, the gastronomic component of your trip can be very interesting.
Russia is a huge country with many different geographical regions, each of which has its own characteristics. Therefore, the answer to the question of what to bring as a souvenir from a trip to another region or what unusual things to please yourself depends on what place you decided to visit during the trip. Every corner of our large country has its own traditions and customs. And most often there are things that characterize this place and embody the Russian spirit. Often it can be things or products that can not be found anywhere in the world.
Of course, the most common souvenir that all foreign tourists bring from every corner of Russia is a matryoshka. Traditionally, a Russian woman in a red sundress and headscarf is drawn, but now other themes are often used for painting: fairy-tale characters, entire families, political figures, and just abstract images.
Tula gingerbread is widely used in the country, a classic gingerbread with jam inside, decorated with an inscription or an image of sights on top. This gingerbread can be purchased not only in Tula, but also in any other Russian city. By the way, if you decide to visit Tula, you can buy the famous Tula samovar there.
Another of the most popular Souvenirs from Russia are native Russian winter boots. Incredibly warm, often decorated with patterns, different colors of boots can be a nice gift for yourself or your loved ones.
For women, a wonderful purchase can be a Pavlovsky Posad shawl, which can be made of different materials, have different sizes, but must be decorated with a beautiful pattern. This colorful handkerchief is one of the most recognizable symbols of Russia, which has a history of more than 200 years. A wonderful delicious purchase can be Kolomna pastille, whipped with egg white and sugar Apple mass, formed in the form of layers. This delicacy has been a favorite dessert since the beginning of the 20th century.
You can also bring chocolates from local confectionery factories, products from Gzhel workshops, Murom rolls, amber products, wooden dishes with Khokhloma, pine nuts, and much more from your trip to Russia, depending on where you are going.
Russia is a country rich in gifts. In each region, you can find something interesting and unique that you will want to buy for yourself or your friends as a gift.
The history of the region's formation goes back to the distant past of our country. Contrary to popular misconception, the modern North-West of Russia was formed long before 1703, when Peter the Great decided to move the capital of the Russian Empire to this developed, but constantly attacked from outside, region. In 1693, a decree of Peter I established the first Russian post road Moscow-Arkhangelsk via Vologda. This decree was a natural step to improve the connection between the two administrative centers, caused by the need to unite the region within these cities into one territorial entity. In 1703, Peter I founded the city of Saint Petersburg. In 1707-1709, the provincial reform took place. As a result, such provinces as Arkhangelsk, Vologda and other provinces were formed.
In 1929, these provinces were abolished and their territories formed the Northern region. In 1929, the Nenets national district (now the Nenets Autonomous district) was formed in the Northern territory. In 1936, after the separation of the Komi ASSR, the Northern region was transformed into the Northern region. A year later, the Northern region was divided into the Arkhangelsk and Vologda regions.
In 1963, the North-Western economic region of the USSR was created, which was one of the largest regions in the Soviet Union. It occupied the entire North of the European part of the USSR. The area of the district was 1662.8 thousand km2 (7.4% of the territory of the Soviet Union).
On may 13, 2000, the Northwestern Federal district was formed in Russian Federation. It It borders Finland, Norway, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belarus, and also has access to the Baltiiskoye, White, Barentsevo, and Karskoe seas.
Today, the region represents unity in economic, political, and cultural terms.
Currently, the North-Western Autonomous district includes the Republic of Komi and Karelia, the Nenets Autonomous district, the Arkhangelskaya, Vologodskaya, Murmanskaya, Leningradskaya, Novgorodskaya, Pskovskaya, Kaliningradskaya regions, and the city of Saint Petersburg.
The attractions of the Northwestern district
The largest among the Palace and Park ensembles of Europe Pavlovsk is considered one of the best landscape parks in the world. It was created as the summer residence for the Imperial family Paul I and harmoniously fit into the relief of numerous turns of the river Slavic river with different banks.
The Hibin mountains on the Kola Peninsula are not distinguished by high pointed peaks, their tops platformed, but slopes are steep and in many places abrupt and sheer.
The knot Islands in the Admiralty district of the Northern capital are formed after the construction of two channels for the needs of shipbuilding in the Neva Delta connecting it with the river Moika.
Montrepe is going from Peter to think of what he is not thinking in the Northern capital – so he thought the famous poet and proseik Ossip Mandelstam. And he's a thousand times right – in the Park an amazing size atmosphere that proposes to think and reasoning, to a calm understanding of any problems and making important life decisions.
Laying the sea fortress on the island of Kotlin in the Gulf of Finland, king Peter I sought to solve an important state task – to protect the way to St. Petersburg.
The largest freshwater lake in Europe extends from the southern outskirts of Karelia, which owns the Northern and Eastern coast. The rest of the coastal perimeter belongs to the Leningrad region.
Around the mystical plateau vottovar there are many legends, incredible stories connected with ancient tribes of Saami, and with mysterious Hyperboreas, and with visits from representatives of extraterrestrial civilizations,like UFO.
Only 896 km of ocean, chained by eternal ice, shares the extreme Northern point of the archipelago Of Franz Joseph Cape Fligeli on the island of Rudolf from the North pole – closer than to the shore of the mainland.
The ancient fortress on the Walnut island in the middle of Neva where the river flows from the Ladoga lake, built Novgorod in the early XIV century to strengthen its borders from Swedish attacks.
In the vicinity of St. Petersburg, only one castle is a Large Gatchinsky Palace.
The only in Russia Western European medieval fortress was built by Swedes on a small piece of land in the Finnish Gulf.
The assumptions of scientists that the sacred water of Saami seidozero on the Kola Peninsula keeps the secret of the disappearance of the Hyperborean civilization, has not yet been confirmed.
The famous battle of Alexander Nevsky troops with the lebonian knights-crusaders on the ice of the lake near Cape Sigovets known to every Slavic as the Ledovoe buttle of 1242.
Rouskale mountain Park refers to one of the most interesting and beautiful places of Northern landowners.
The amazing Manaraga is excited by all who managed to climb to the top or see it near.
One of the picturesque places and beautiful lakes of Russia is lake Seliger.
Wonderful, amazing in its beauty, paanarvi national Park is a reserve edge in Northern Karelia.
The harsh nature of the polar Urals is difficult to reach and maloptima. There are practically no large settlements on the huge forest territory.
St. Petersburg is the second largest and important city of Russia and the northernmost city in the world-millionaire. According to 2019, its population is 5 381 736 people and now it occupies an area of 1439 square kilometers. Among cities completely located in Europe, it is the third population, as well as the first population of the city, which is not the capital. From the moment of Foundation and until August 1914, and then from September 1991 the city was called St.
From 1914 to January 1924 — Petrograd, from January 1924 to September 1991 — Leningrad. he was Named after St. Peter, the heavenly patron of the king-founder, not in honor of Peter the First, as many think.
In 1712-1918 he was the capital of the Russian state. Now St. Petersburg is sometimes called "Cultural capital", "tram capital" (the longest tram network) or "sea capital" (sea and river port, shipbuilding).
The city was founded on may 27, 1703. Some historians believe that Peter was not going to build a city here — in his plans were fortress and shipyard and precisely for them he chose a strategically important place in the Neva Delta. By the way, Peter had and the idea to establish the capital in the Bay, on the island of Kotlin, where there was a large and main port and built a new city named them "bracket" — "Crown city". In 1712 he even gathered to move there after the war with the Swedes of nobles, merchants and craftsmen, but fortunately, quickly to the idea of cool.
And so the city arose in such an uncomfortable place. Why uncomfortable? The fault of the river Neva and the main natural "beach" city — regular floods, which for many years have flooded coastal to the Finnish Gulf of areas.
One of the most important plans of Peter was Vasilevsky island — the largest in the Neva Delta, from North to South it stretches 4.2 kilometers, and from West to East — on a whole 6.6 kilometers, and its area is almost 11 square kilometers. As you know, Peter was going to do Vasilievsky island the center of the future city and, for example of Amsterdam, he was planning to build a network of channels there. A serious reason that did not allow Vasilevsky island to become the center of the city, was a Neva river and the absence of bridges between its banks.
The XIX century left the most important milestone in the history of the city — the uprising of Decembrists on the Senate square on December 26, 1825, which became the first attempt to overthrow autocracy. But the difficulties in political life did not stop progress. It was in these years that the design of the main architectural ensembles in the Palace square and Vasilevsky island were built the largest factories (Putin, Obukhovsky, Baltic). At Eriksson's factory, the phone was starting to release. In 1866, the first train went to the Royal village to the first train. The largest breakthroughs in science were implemented — the Pulkovskaya Observatory and Russian geographical society opened. By the end of the century, the population of the city has been over 1 265,000 people.
The next, the twentieth century became the most difficult in the history of the city and the guilt of that — three revolutions and four devastating wars. If more than 2 million people were to start the world First population of the city, then to the end of the Civil war — only 72 thousand. It was then that in 1924, because of fears and threats caused by significant approach to the city of borders, it was decided to transfer the capital to Moscow, and Leningrad for many years received the status of the "great city with regional destiny".
However, it was here based on the results of revolutionary performances of 1905-1907, the First State Duma, which laid the beginning of the history of parliamentarians in the country
But the main test was expected by the city during the great Patriotic war, and the name of him is Blockade. It continued 872 days and nights and brought the city almost a million victims, and 97% of them died of hunger. In the end, in 1944, only 560 thousand inhabitants stay alife in the city. They are their own They remained alive Precisely they their heroic labor began to restore city and achieved fantastic success. Only 10 years after the war in the city were opened the first metro stations, 12 years later, the world's first nuclear ice breaker Lenin. New architectural ensembles in the new buildings and rebuilt destroyed palaces in suburbs. In 1951, the air terminal Pulkovo was opened, and in 1962 one of the highest television tower in Europe and the new TV tower was built. In 1965, one of the first Leningrad received an honorary title City-Hero.
In the twenty-first century, the most powerful incentive for the development of the city was the celebration of the 300th anniversary of its Foundation and holding the summit of the Great eight-dimensional in the Constantin Palace.
Serious reconstruction of the Central part was carried out, roads, bridges and other infrastructure were updated. The project of ring road and construction of the Dam in the Gulf of Finland, which lasted for more than 30 years and ended in 2011 with two new and most important for the city of realities. First, it was always solved the problem of floods, and secondly, the island of Kotlin stopped being an island and the town of cronstadt became available for everyone.
The last time the most important event for the city was the holding of the world Cup games. At the same time, according to numerous tourists, he was recognized as the most hospitable among all cities of Russia.
The attractions of St. Petersburg
In any tourist capital like St. Petersburg there are a mandatory list of attractions, see and visit which every tourist wants. These include:
Since the end of the XVIII century, research, design, construction, reconstruction and operation of the communication routes of Russia were engaged in the Department of water communications and the Expedition of roads in the state. In 1801-1809, both of these departments headed Nikolai Petrovich Rumytsev (1754-1826)-a prominent statesman, diplomate, member of the State Council, Senator. In 1809 he presented to Emperor Alexander I "Proposals for reliable measures for establishment throughout Russia convenient messages on land and water". This document not only offered a new, unified, more perfect structure of management of all ways of communication of Russia, but also expressed the idea of the need for establishment in the state of special technical institution for the preparation of engineers capable of leading construction of roads and bridges, river and sea ports, civil and transport structures.
Based on these proposals, in accordance with the Highish approved Manifesto on November 20, 1809, an independent Department was organized-Management of water and land communications. The same Manifesto established the Corps of engineers of communication and the Institute of the civil engineering Corps of communications (now St. Petersburg state University of communication paths). The building was created to perform construction and repair works on the Department of communication routes, Institute — to prepare engineering personnel for this Corps. (Here and then all dates before March 1918 are given by old style).
The first rector (inspector) of the Institute of the communications engineers Institute was appointed Augustine Augustine Betankur (1758-1824) — Spaniard on origin, scientist with world name, outstanding engineer-mechanic, Builder and teacher. He received excellent education in the Royal school and at the Academy of fine arts in Madrid. Later in Paris, at the National school of bridges and roads, listened to lectures of famous French scientists J.-R. Perron (1708-1794), Proni (1755-1839) and Monge (1746-1818). Since 1801 A. Betankour was led in Spain by the Building of communication routes, in 1802 he created and headed in Madrid high School of roads, channels and bridges. Since 1809 he started working in Russia.
The main goal of the Institute was formulated in St. Petersburg by A. Betankur in a note to the project of this educational institution: "... we are going to provide Russia by engineers who can be appointed to produce all works in the Empire right on the exit of the institution."
Initially, the Institute was an open higher education institution with a four-year term of training. Although the pupils and had military rank, but formally the Institute was considered a civil school, and military disciplines in it did not teach. In December 1823, the Institute of the civil engineering Corps Of communications was converted into a closed educational institution on the model of military cadet corps, and military disciplines and frontal training were included in the curriculum. And only in 1864 the Institute again became a civil school.
In the first years of its existence the Institute prepared specialists of a wide construction profile, but in the 30th of the XIX century. in connection with the construction of the first railway (1837) in the training programs of the course of construction art were included special sections on the construction and operation of Railways.
In 1864, in accordance with the new Position on the Institute, he declared a civil higher education institution of the first category with a five-year period of training and became called the Institute of communication engineers.
The Institute entered the next stage of its development — the second fifty — year-when he was headed by V.P. Sobolevskiy, M.N. Gersevanov (1830-1907), L.F. Nikolai (1844-1908), N.A. Belelubskiy (1845-1922), the training process was managed by A. H. Reder (1809-1872), I.A. Panaev (1822-1901), K.K. Kokovcev (1820-1891), F.G Zbrozhek (1849-1902), F.E. Maksimenko (1852-1935), A.A. Brandt (1855-?), V.I. Kurdumov (1853-1904).The Institute of communications engineers continued to improve training courses of General-engineering, building and transport disciplines.
Currently, the University conducts research activities, prepares high-class specialists. International cooperation with many countries is also developing. The University has experienced teachers, which allows to maintain the quality of education at a very high level.
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